The first revelation. The most significant event that occurred during Ramadan is the revelation of the Quran to Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم was in the cave in Mount Hira when the Angel Jibrael came to him with the first five ayat of Surat Al-Alaq.
Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ
"Ramadan is the month in which was sent down the Quran as a guide to mankind also clear signs for guidance and judgement." [Al-Baqara, 2:185]
نَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ
"We have indeed revealed it, (Al-Quran) in the night of power." [Al-Qadr, 97:1]
1 A.H. (After Hijra).
In the first year after the Hijrah, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم sent Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib with thirty Muslim riders to Saif al Bahr to with a definite task of intercepting a caravan belonging to Quraish. It was a caravan of 300 people including Abu Jahl bin Hisham. The two parties encountered each other and aligned in preparation for fighting. Majdi bin ‘Amr, on good terms with both sides, happened to be there and managed to prevent an imminent clash.
In the second year of Hijrah the Messenger of Allah set out on the 8th Ramadhan with three hundred and five of his companions mounted on seventy camels. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and his companions set out to intercept a caravan of their own goods that had been left in Makkah. It was led by Abu Sufyan, himself, and estimated at 60,000 dinars. They were met by a well equipped army of the nobility of Quraish, intent on putting out the light of Islam. Then the two sides advanced and drew near each other at Badr on Friday morning on the 17th of Ramadhan. Despite being outnumbered three to one and appearing weak and unseasoned, the Muslims defended their faith with a burning desire to protect the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and meet their Lord through martyrdom. Allah سبحانه وتعالى gave them a decisive victory at Badr on this day of Ramadhan, that would never to be forgotten.
In 6 A.H., Zaid ibn Haritha was sent to Wadi al-Qura at the head of a detachment to confront Fatimah bint Rabiah, the queen of that area. Fatimah had previously attacked a caravan led by Zaid and had succeeded in plundering its wealth. She was known to be the most protected woman in Arabia, as she hung fifty swords of her close relatives in her home. Fatimah was equally renowned for showing open hostility to Islam. She was killed in a battle against these Muslims in the month of Ramadhan.
By Ramadhan of 8 A H., the treaty of Hudaibiyya had been broken and the Muslim armies had engaged the Byzantines in the North. Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم felt the need to strike a fatal blow to Kufr in the Arabian Peninsula and conquer the city of Mecca. Now the time had come to purify the Kaabah of nakedness and abomination. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم set out with an army having more armed men than Al-Madinah had ever seen before. People were swelling the army's ranks as it moved toward Makkah. The determination of the believers became so awesome that the city of Makkah was conquered without a battle, on the 20th of Ramadhan. This was one of the most important dates in Islamic history for after it, Islam was firmly entrenched in the Arabian Peninsula. During the same month and year, after smashing the idols of Makkah, detachments were sent to the major centers of polytheism and al-Lat, Manat and Suwa, some of the greatest idols of Arabia, were destroyed.
Such was the month of Ramadhan in the time of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. It was a time of purification, enjoining the good, forbidding evil, and striving hard with one's life and wealth. After the death of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, the Muslims under the Khilafah carried on this tradition. Ramadhan continued to be a time of great trials and crucial events.
Ninety-two years after the Hijrah, Islam had spread across North Africa, Iran, Afghanistan, Yemen and Syria. Spain was under the tyrannical rule of King Roderic of the Visigoths. Roderic had forced his six million serfs and persecuted Jews to seek the aid of the Muslims of North Africa. Musa ibn Husair, the Umayyad governor of North Africa, responded by sending his courageous general Tariq ibn Ziyad at the head of 12,000 troops. In Ramadhan of that year, they were confronted with a combined Visigoth army of 90,000 Christians led by Roderic, himself, who was seated on a throne of ivory silver, and precious gems, drawn by white mules. After burning his boats, Tariq motivated the Muslims warning them that and Paradise lay ahead of them and defeat and the sea to the rear. They burst with great enthusiasm and Allah سبحانه وتعالى manifested a clear victory over the forces of disbelief. Not only were Roderic and his forces completely annihilated, but Tariq and Musa succeeded in liberating whole of Spain, Sicily and parts of France. This was the begining of the Golden Age of Al-Andalus where Muslims ruled for over 700 years.
In the seventh century A.H. the Mongols were sweeping across Asia destroying everything that lay in their path Genghis Khan called himself "the scourge of God sent to punish humanity for their sins". In 617 A.H. Samarkand, Ray, and Hamdan were put to the sword causing more than 700,000 people to be killed or made captive. In 656 A.H. Hulagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, continued this destruction. Even Baghdad, the leading city of the Muslim world, was sacked. Some estimates say that as many as 1,800,000 Muslims were killed in this awesome carnage.
The Christians were asked to eat pork and drink wine openly while the surviving Muslims were forced to participate in drinking bouts. Wine was sprinkled in the masjids and no Adhan (call to prayer) was allowed. In the wake of such a disaster threatening the whole Muslim world, Allah سبحانه وتعالى raised up from the Mamluks of Egypt, Saifuddin Qutz, who united the Muslim army and met the Mongols at Ain Jalut on Friday, 25 Ramadhan 658 A.H. (6 September 1260 CE).
Qutz told his army to wait until they finished the Friday prayers (Jummah Salah), "Do not fight them until it is sunset and the shadows appear and the winds stir, and the preachers and people start to implore Allah for us in their prayers", and thereafter the fighting began. Jullanar, the wife of Qutz, was killed during the battle. He rushed towards her saying, "Oh my beloved one". She told him while uttering her last breath, "Do not say that, and care more for Islam." Her soul left her body after telling her husband that the Jihad for the sake of Allah and Islam is more important than love and personal relations.
Qutz stood up saying "Islamah...Islamah". The whole army repeated that word after him until they achieved their victory. Although they were under great pressure, the Muslims with the help of Allah سبحانه وتعالى, cunning strategy and unflinching bravery, crushed the Mongol army and reversed this tidal wave of horror. The Muslims immediately started to chase the Mongolians, and Qutz entered Damascus five days after the Ain Jalout battle. The chase continued to Halab and when the Mongolians felt the approach of the Muslims they left behind the Muslim prisoners. In the period of a month the Muslims were able to restore Belad El-Sham entirely from the hands of the Tartars and the Mongolians.
In the year 682 A.H. (Ramadan, 4th July 1187 C.E.) that Salahuddin Ayyubi with the Muslim Mujahideen of the Khilafah fought one of the most important battles in the history of Islam. The Muslims on this day, in one single day, virtually routed all local Christian forces capable of defending the Crusaders establishment in the Near East. Facing no resistance, Salahuddin took his time to reach the city of Jerusalem on 9th October, 1187 C.E. (Common Era), a Friday, and the Holy city was purified.
This was the spirit of Ramadhan that enabled our righteous forefathers to face seemingly impossible challenges. It was a time of intense activity, spending the day in the saddle and the night in prayer whilst calling upon Allah سبحانه وتعالى for His mercy and forgiveness. Today, the Muslim world is faced with disunity, colonisation, widespread corruption and economic deprivation. Surely we are in need of the Khilafah so we as believers can walk in the footsteps of our beloved Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, the illustrious Sahabah, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Qutuz, Salahuddin and the countless heroes of Islam. Surely we should be of the believers who are unafraid of the threats of the Kuffar, yet kind and humble amongst ourselves.
May Allah سبحانه وتعالى make us that generation of Muslims who can carry Islam to all corners of the globe and may He give us the strength to undertake all hardships in the pursuit of His سبحانه وتعالى pleasure. Ameen.